To compare the prevalence of hospitalizations and deaths due to Leishmaniasis among Brazilian regions from 2010 to 2020. This is a retrospective, descriptive, quantitative, documentary-based study. Data were obtained from the SUS Hospital Information System (SIH/SUS), by the SUS IT Department (DATASUS). In the period evaluated, 32.320 hospitalizations for Leishmaniasis were recorded in Brazil. Visceral leishmaniasis comprised the majority of hospitalizations 25.761 (79.70%). However, the highest numbers of hospitalizations occurred in the Northeast (42.82%) and Southeast (19.91%) for visceral leishmaniasis, Southeast (37.29%) and Northeast (33.42%) for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Southeast (42.82%) and Northeast (22.94%) due to mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. There was a predominance of males and brown color/race. A total of 1.193 deaths were observed. The highest number of deaths occurred in patients hospitalized for visceral leishmaniasis (1.086/91.03%). Leishmaniasis and, consequently, hospitalizations and deaths due to this pathology, cause a considerable impact on the public health system in Brazil, generating high costs for the country. Thus, government measures are needed to stimulate health promotion actions for disease prevention.
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